A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel. It may be an integrated steel works carrying out all steps of steelmaking from smelting iron ore to rolled product, but may also describe plants where steel semi-finished casting products (blooms, ingots, slabs, billets) are made, from molten pig iron or from scrap.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients. Prior to the invention and adoption of the Fourdrinier machine and other types of paper machine that use an endless belt, all paper in a paper mill was made by hand, one sheet at a time, by specialized laborers.
This provided a continuous process, cutting out the need to pass the plates over the rolls and to double them, as in a pack mill. At the end the strip was cut with a guillotine shear or rolled into a coil. Early (hot rolling) strip mills did not produce strip suitable for tinplate, but in 1929 cold rolling began to be used to reduce the gauge further.
A bid to raise milk productivity and ensure remunerative prices to dairy farmers in Odisha, NDDB has launched a multi-pronged programme involving cooperatives at an investment of about Rs 15 crore to begin with. NDDB plans to strengthen dairy farming in Odisha where estimated milk production stood at 1.86 million tonnes in 2013-14, which is 1.4 % of national milk production.
MES is one of largest construction and maintenance agencies in India. It is responsible for creating the strategic and the operational infrastructure other than major roads, as also the administrative habitat for all three Services and the associated organisations of the Ministry of Defence.
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas.Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.
A chemical fertilizer is a substance applied to soils or directly onto plants to provide nutrients optimal for their growth and development. The essential nutrients contained in these fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK), as well as other nutritional substances in smaller amounts—all presented in a form that can easily be absorbed and metabolized by plants.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
The Metro fever is catching up in smaller cities, thanks largely to the success of Delhi Metro. Cities like Chandigarh, Ludhiana and Bhopal are making a case for Metro, even though they don't qualify because of the population cut-off. We take a look at how Metro connectivity has helped many cities in India and the upcoming networks.